Wine Definitions, Volume 4

This is the fourth installment of our wine definition flashcards. These  mobile-friendly flashcards are a fun way to learn more about wine, even when on the go.

They make a fun game for a wine tasting event. While you and your friends are enjoying your Demi-muid, you can be learning more about wine. Enjoy!

If you prefer, we also offer these definitions as a list. You will find a link to the non-flashcard version of this article on the right. 

Fresh

Freshness is a good quality. It comes from acidity. Wine with ample freshness have lift.

Frizzante

Italian term for a semi-sparkling wine.

Frizzantino

Italian term for a wine that has very slight effervescence, more than a still wine but less than a semi-sparkling. Similar to the French term perlant.

Fruit Set

The time of year when the fertilized flowers morph into small grape bunches.

Fruit wine

A fermented alcoholic beverage made from non-grape fruit juice which may or may not include the addition of sugar or honey. Fruit wines are always called

Fruity

a tasting term for wines that exhibit strong smells and flavors of fresh fruit

Full-bodied

a wine high in alcohol and flavors, often described as ?big?

Fût de chêne

French term for oak barrel.

Gamey

Wines with gamey aromas smell of meat, barnyards and, or earth. A little bit of this goes a long way.

Garagiste

Out of date term for a movement of small producers in the Right Bank of Bordeaux who were making wine in their home or garage.

Garrafeira

Portuguese term for a potentially superior quality wine that has seen extended aging in the barrel and bottle

Garrigue

This French term describes a fragrance of earth, herbs and other scents found in typical Provencal open markets.

Gelatin

The same active gel found in Jell-O, this animal product is used in the fining process to bind with excess tannins so that they may be removed during filtration

Gemeind

German term for a commune where wine is produced

Generic

A term used by the World Trade Organization to designate a wine region that can produce wines with defined characteristics (such as an Appellation d\'origine contr?l?e (AOC) in France).

Geographical Indication

Refers to the increasingly international nature of the wine industry, including vineyard management practices, winemaking techniques, wine styles, and wine marketing.

Globalization of wine

Glycerin, produced during fermentation adds to the texture of a wine and its body. This is a positive term.

Glycerin

In Hungary, the traditional oak cask used to age Tokaji

Gönc

Australian term for inexpensive box wine.

Goon

French for \"the taste of terroir,\" meaning the unique characteristics imparted by a specific site.

Goüt de Terroir

Describes a wine that is harmonious and pleasing in a subtle way.

Graceful

Uniting two plants so they grow as one. Most often used to join phylloxera-resistant rootstock with vitis vinifera buds that will bear fruit

Grafting

A phrase that may appear on French wine labels from Alsace, Condrieu, Coteaux du Layon and M?con to indicate a wine made from botrytis-infected grapes

Gran Reserva

French term translated into Great Growth as the wine comes from the highest level of terroir.

Grand Cru

French term for use in Classification?s, for example, there are Five Growths in the Medoc that are all Grand Cru Classe. The term is also used in the Classification of St. Emilion.

Grand Cru Classe

The best wine made from an estate, usually in France and most often from Bordeaux.

Grand Vin

French term for a famous brand of wine, most commonly associated with the large Champagne houses.

Grande Marque

Granite soils are found in many regions, but it is quite predominate in the Northern Rhone Valley.

Granite

Spanish term for a sparkling wine that has been tank fermented as opposed to going through secondary fermentation in the bottle according to the Traditional Method used for Cava production

Granvas

Characterized by simple flavors and aromas associated with fresh table grapes; distinct from the more complex fruit flavors (currant, black cherry, fig or apricot) found in fine wines.

Grapey

A signature descriptor for Sauvignon Blanc and a pleasant one unless overbearing and pungent.

Grassy

Gravel, along with other rocks and stones are an important part of many wine regions, especially Bordeaux, and California, for Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc.

Gravel

Gentle method for moving wine without using pumps and only using the force of gravity.

Gravity Cellars

Gray rot sets in when the fruit fungus Botrytis cinerea, as a result of persistent wet, humid conditions, overruns a crop and destroys the fruit. Fruit afflicted with gray rot appears to be covered in a carpet of gray fur

Gray Rot

Green wines are produced from unripe grapes. They display vegatal characteristics. This is not a positive term.

Green

Green harvesting is when a grower removes unripe grapes to hekp lower yields and increase the concentration for the remaining grapes.

Green Harvest

The most important grape used to produce wine in the Southern Rhone valley.

Grenache

Used more often by British tasters to denote firm, tannic wines.

Grip

A dry wine made from a vineyard that has been designated as an Erste Lage (

Grosses Gewächs

A German designation for a cluster of vineyards within a Bereich as opposed to an Einzellage which is a single vineyard.

Grosslage

Means the winery handled each aspect of wine growing.

Grown, Produced and Bottled

In the official 1855 Classification of the Medoc, the top Bordeaux Wines were ranked using the term growth; First Growth, Second Growth, Third Growth, Fourth Growth and Fifth Growth.

Growth

French term for the foil and wire cork cage that are used to dress a bottle of sparkling wine

Habillage

German term for a medium-dry wine

Halbtrocken

Holds 375 milliliters or 3/8 liter

Half-bottle

The amount of time a grape spends ripening on the vine

Hang time

Wines that are hard have rough tannins often with high acidity.

Hard

Well balanced, with no component obtrusive or lacking

Harmonious

Used to describe astringent wines that are tannic or high in alcohol.

Harsh

The process of picking the grapes, whether by hand or machine. Also the time period when the grapes are picked; usually September through October in the northern hemisphere and March through April in the southern hemisphere

Harvest

Used to describe a wine that has small amounts of visible matter. A good quality if a wine is unfined and unfiltered.

Hazy

Refers to a method of vine training. Head-trained vines are free-standing; a trunk is formed from which several branches will grow vertically, resembling a small tree

Head-trained

Used to describe high-alcohol wines.

Heady

Used to describe the full, warm, sometimes rustic qualities found in red wines with high alcohol.

Hearty

European term of land measurement that is equal to 2.47 acres of land. All French vineyards are measured in hectares.

Hectoliter

a tasting term denoting odors and flavors of fresh herbs (e.g., basil, oregano, rosemary, etc.)

Herbaceous

Term for Rhine wines, usually used in England.

Hock

Hollow wines are missing the middle between the first sensation of flavor, the attack and the finish. They lack fruit.

Hollow

A common trait in sweet wine whites which have a honey character.

Honeyed

Wines that are served in peer group flights from the same vintage.

Horizontal Tasting

High alcohol

Hot

Low alcohol sweet wine made from frozen grapes.

Ice Wine

Italian term for a wine that has been estate-bottled

Imbottigliato all\'origine

A large bottle holding six litres, the equivalent of eight regular wine bottles.

Imperial

This is the European Union\'s new designation, meant to replace the old Vin de Pays for recognition across the member states. It was officially adopted in January 2016

Indication Indication Géographique ProtégéeG?ographique Prot?g?e

Italian quality classification meaning

Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT)

The process in which a winemaker introduces yeast to the must to kick-start fermentation

Inoculation

Intensity in wine is a good thing that takes place when ample flavor keeps the taster focused.

Intensity

Grape varieties grown in nearly every major wine region, for example Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Merlot

International variety

Italian term for a wine that has been aged either in oak or in the bottle

Invecchiato

Adding water to vines. This is not legal in most areas of Europe for vines that are more than 3 years of age.

Irrigation

A protein derived from the bladders of sturgeon and other fish and used in the fining process. The protein binds with excess tannins, pulling them from overly harsh wines

Isinglass

Jammy wines are extremely ripe at their best, and over ripe at their worst. they taste and smell of scents of jam and can contain hints of raisins or prunes.

Jammy

A large bottle holding 3-5 litres, the equivalent of 4-6 regular wine bottles.

Jeroboam

American term for inexpensive table wine (French: Vin de table).

Jug wine

A wine designation in Germany (where it is a Pr?dikat) and Austria.

Kabinett

Wine that is produced under the supervision of a rabbi so as to be ritually pure or clean.

Kosher wine

A smooth textured acid that is the by product of malolactic fermentation. This is the same acid that is also found in milk.

Lactic Acid

German term for a wine slightly above table wines (tafelwine). Similar to a French vin de pays wine.

Landwein

Late Harvest wines are sweet wines produced from grapes that are allowed to over ripen on the vine.

Late Harvest

Similar term to cellaring. Wines that required laying down, are wines that need time in the cellar to age.

Lay Down

One example of a trellising system used to grow wine grapes.

Lazy Ballerina

Leafy wines are vegetal.

Leafy

Lean wines are not concentrated and they have hard edges. They do not offer charm.

Lean

The aroma of old leather club chairs, most frequently associated with older red wines.

Lees

The term denotes an area of Bordeaux, located to the left of the river that is the home of Medoc, where wines from Margaux, St. Julien, Pauillac and St. Estephe come from.

Left Bank

The clear, viscous tears that run down the side of your glass after swirling your wine. The tears or legs are formed from the glycerin in the wine. This along with color are the first two things a taster notices in a wine.

Legs

The amount of time that taste, flavor or mouthfeel persist after swallowing a wine. The longer the finish, the better the wine quality. Common descriptors are short, long and lingering

Length

Natural wine

Lo-fi wine

French term for the dead yeast and sediment of wine also known as lees.

Lie

French term for a named vineyard site. Usually used in the context of describing individual vineyards below Grand cru status.

Lieu-dit

The refreshing sensation offered from a wine. Lift comes from acidity. Without lift, a wine would feel fat and flabby on your palate.

Lift

Made from fossilized seashells and chalk, this type of soil is key for many white wine regions, and in Bordeaux, especially in the Right Bank, in St. Emilion, for Cabernet Franc and Merlot, to a lesser degree.

Limestone

Large oak forest in France, with trees used to produce wine barrels.

Limousin

Linear wines offer flavors that remain on the same path and do not change. For example, in the mouth, a dark fruited wine will not change in flavor to red berries.

Linear

Used to describe the flavor and persistence of flavor in a wine after tasting. When the aftertaste remains on the palate for several seconds, it is said to be lingering.

Liqueur de Tirage

French term meaning

Liquoreux

Italian term for a fortified wine

Liquoroso

A metric measure of volume equal to 33.8 fluid ounces (U.S.) or 35.2 fl oz (imperial).

Litre (US - Liter)

Similar to lift, showing freshness in its character.

Lively

A soil containing a mix of clay, silt and sand. The term

Loam

A positive trait. The longer the flavors and aromatics remain in your senses, the better the wine.

Long

Describes wines that are soft, viscous, fleshy and round; more often associated with sweet white wines than rich red wines.

Luscious (or Lush)

Time during vinification when the grapes, seeds, skins, pulp and stems allow their materials to be extracted, adding color, flavor, tannins and raw material to the wine.

Maceration

On U.S. labels, this indicates only that the winery crushed, fermented and bottled a minimum of 10 percent of the wine in the bottle.

Made and Bottled By

What happens to wine through oxidation. Wines that are maderized show aged colors and a lack of fruit, similar to what is found in Madeira wine.

Maderization

A wine that has been oxidatively aged by maderisation. Often associated with the wines of Madeira

Maderized

A bottle holding 1.5 litres, the equivalent of two regular wine bottles.

Malolactic Fermentation (ML)

French term for a grape grower who makes their own wine. Often associated with the Champagne wine region where producers of Grower Champagnes are identified by the initials RM (for R?coltant-Manipulant) on wine labels

Manipulant

Manzanilla is a category of fino Sherry made only in Sanl?car de Barrameda. It is lighter and drier than most finos.

Manzanilla

Fresh

Freshness is a good quality. It comes from acidity. Wine with ample freshness have lift.

Frizzante

Italian term for a semi-sparkling wine.

Frizzantino

Italian term for a wine that has very slight effervescence, more than a still wine but less than a semi-sparkling. Similar to the French term perlant.

Fruit Set

The time of year when the fertilized flowers morph into small grape bunches.

Fruit wine

A fermented alcoholic beverage made from non-grape fruit juice which may or may not include the addition of sugar or honey. Fruit wines are always called

Fruity

a tasting term for wines that exhibit strong smells and flavors of fresh fruit

Full-bodied

a wine high in alcohol and flavors, often described as ?big?

Fût de chêne

French term for oak barrel.

Gamey

Wines with gamey aromas smell of meat, barnyards and, or earth. A little bit of this goes a long way.

New User Registration
*Required field

Share on social

Wine Term Mega-list

Check out this list of over 800 wine definitions. It's like a wine education all by itself.

New User Registration
*Required field

Check out these posts!

How to match wine lovers to wines they’ll love

In this article we discuss how segmenting your tasters can help you match them to your wines more easily. Using the two approaches described below, you can match your marketing and your wines to their tastes and their buying preferences in a way that is sure to increase your revenue.

Read More »

How to Sell More Wine at Your Tastings

In this article we discuss how segmenting your tasters can help you match them to your wines more easily. Using the two approaches described below, you can match your marketing and your wines to their tastes and their buying preferences in a way that is sure to increase your revenue.

Read More »

120 Wine Definitions, volume 1

This week, we present the first installment of our wine definitions. We will post one each week for the next seven weeks. You can use these cards to study up and build your wine knowledge. After you complete all of the definitions, you will know more about wine than 99% of people. You will basically be a wine expert.

Read More »

shares

Don't miss out on this oenophilic goodness!

 Join VineTutor now to get access to our free library of tools, resources and worksheets that will supercharge your wine business. You won’t find these tools anywhere else. Take action!

New User Registration
*Required field